Great Small House Ideas Prospect Baptist church

Prospect Baptist church

Foundation stone 28 Oct 1899 by G W Cooper, architects Williams & Goode, limestone with brick dressings, closed 26 Jul 1959. First church, wooden, opened Oct 1883 on same site in Pulsford St. Third church opened Aug 1959 in Milner St, Sunday school opened Oct 1960. When the Milner St church became too small, the former St Cuthbert’s War Memorial Hall in Gloucester St was purchased & re-opened as Baptist church 1988, last service 1996, sold, demolished & replaced by houses. The Milner St church was also demolished & replaced by houses.

“In October of last year services were commenced in a cottage in Pulsford road, Prospect, but since then a neat chapel had been erected by a friend, and the title presented to the Church. Open-air services were held last summer, and were well attended.” [Evening Journal 7 Nov 1883]

“The Rev. E. H. Ellis presided at the ceremony, and gave a brief history of the old wooden edifice, which has done good service during the last 16 years. . . The stone was then laid by Mr. G. W. Cooper, who said that when the original church was built, it was handed over to the Tynte-street authorities free of debt. He hoped that the new church would be almost, if not entirely free, by the time the building was completed.” [Advertiser 30 Oct 1899]

PROSPECT ST CUTHBERT’S WAR MEMORIAL HALL
Foundation stone 20 Nov 1920 by Governor Sir Archibald Weigall, opened 22 Aug 1921 in Gloucester St, sold to Baptists 1988, last service 1996, sold, demolished & replaced by houses.

“the Governor (Sir Archibald Weigall). . . hoped that the hall would be a tangible memorial, and serve for all time to glorify the gallant deeds of our lost heroes. . . stone . . . inscribed — ‘To the glory of God and as a memorial of the valour and sacrifice of Australian men and women in the great war, 1914-1920.’” [Register 29 Nov 1920]

“In May, 1919, it was decided by parishioners . . . to erect a building to give better facilities for educating the children, and for furthering the efforts of the church among the young people of the parish. . . consists of an assembly hall . . . Kindergarten room . . . 14 classrooms, and a large kitchen. . . The building was designed Mr. Frank Cordon. The supervising architects were Messrs. English & Soward.” [The Journal 22 Aug 1921]

Posted by aquilareen on 2016-11-05 20:57:27

Tagged: , Prospect , Baptist , church

amazing Small House Ideas Lower Slaughter Cottages The Square -261

Lower Slaughter Cottages The Square -261

A sharp crystal evening, golden sunlight casting long blue shadows. What a joy to arrive in Lower Slaughter and wander along the river with only the ducks, the jackdaws and a few hardy visitors for company. The jackdaws seem at home in the trees along the River Eye, occasionally descending to hop along the rooftops or to peer at discarded bread crumbs with their grey heads at an angle. Slaughter is thought to be a corruption of slohtre, a marshy place. Many visit Bourton on the water fewer travel an extra mile to see Lower Slaughter it’s smaller, quieter but equally picturesque neighbour.

Stone cottages line the north bank of the river with a small green at their centre, this miniature area of grass is known as The Square and has a Gothic drinking fountain as it’s only adornment.The clear stream water is only visible as it eddies round the piers of the low stone bridges that span it’s broad flow. Follow the canalised river to the upper end of the village and you will find a 19th century brick corn mill with white water crashing over the mill race and 15ft water wheel still turning with the flow. On the opposite bank towards the middle of the village are the Village Hall of 1887 and the National School by Edmund B. Ferrey 1871. Near where the road crosses the river the south bank is dominated by large and luxurious-looking hotel.

The church was rebuilt in 1866-7 by Benjamin Ferrey, the design draws on Early English and Geometrical Decorated styles and though it replaced a picturesque medieval building with a saddle-back tower the Victorian design sits well among the more ancient stone buildings that surround it. Only a Transitional Norman north arcade survives with scalloped capitals and waterholding bases joined by pointed double-chamfered arches. The church has a nave with a north aisle, chancel, south porch and a west tower with broached spire the tip of which was replaced in 1998. Elegant black marble shafts ornament the chancel arch but a similar use of marble in Ferrey’s east window was lost when Hoare and Wheeler provided a new east window and an Italian alabaster reredos depicting the Crucifixion in 1910. Next to the altar a 13th century piscina survives from the older church. The stone font and pulpit are part of Ferrey’s design and there are areas of floor tiling by Godwin. The east window has glass by James Powell and Sons and they provided the attractive design in the north aisle. The west window of the north aisle and the west tower window are by Clayton and Bell 1867. Most of the memorials in the church commemorate the Whitmore family who occupied the neighbouring manor House for more than 300 years. The west tower has six bells, one of c.1450 by Robert Hendley of Gloucester inscribed Santa Anna ORA Pro Nobis St.Anne pray for us. Two are dated 1683 by Edward Neale of Burford and three of 1867 by John Warner and Sons of London.

To the north-east of the churchyard is a 16th century dovecote which is said to have held 1000 birds.

Lower Slaughter lies just off the Fosseway near Bourton on the Water about an hour form Stratford-upon-avon

www.bwthornton.co.uk

Posted by bwthornton on 2013-02-18 13:57:06

Tagged: , Lower Slaughter , Cotswolds , churches , James Powell , Clayton and Bell , architecture , photography , mill , church , stained glass

awesome Small House Ideas Childs Restaurant Building

Childs Restaurant Building

1208 Surf Avenue, Coney Island, Brooklyn, New York City, New York, United States

Summary

The Childs Restaurant Building on Surf Avenue in Coney Island was the first restaurant built for this well-known chain in Coney Island, at a time when the area was changing from its somewhat seedy aura of summer amusements to a wholesome, family resort that could be enjoyed year-round. The Childs Restaurant chain, begun in 1889, developed as small luncheonettes that catered to working people, where one could find decent meals for a reasonable price in a clean environment. As such, it was the perfect type of establishment for the “new Coney Island.”

This building was constructed in 1917 in West Brighton near the terminus of the Prospect Park and Coney Island Railway line and close by many of the most famous amusements of the area. Childs Restaurant filled the need for a respectable but not expensive restaurant for the many working-class New Yorkers who flocked to the beach for a relaxing day in the sun. As the area prospered, a second and larger Childs was built at 21st Street facing the new Boardwalk. This first restaurant continued to operate in this location until 1943 when the property was leased to the Blue Bird Casino and restaurant. During the following years the building continued to house restaurants, clubs and other activities related to Coney Island’s amusements.

It was the site of David Rosen’s Wonderland Circus Sideshow and, since 2007, has been the location of Coney Island U.S.A. and the Coney Island Museum, which documents the history of this famous New York City neighborhood. Originally designed by John C. Westervelt who worked for the Childs chain for many years, the building displays elements of the Spanish Revival style, seen in its overhanging red tile roof, round-arched openings and white facade. Its wide arches facing two streets served as grand welcoming gestures to crowds passing by, while the style suggests a warm Mediterranean resort and hint at the fun to be had in Coney Island. This building is a rare survivor from a many years of Coney Island history, beginning when an assortment of amusements and the sea air attracted thousands of pleasure-seekers escaping from the nearby hot city through the present day.

DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS

Coney Island

Although the western end of Coney Island had achieved some popularity as a rustic seaside resort early in the 19th century, it also gained an unsavory reputation for its gambling, pickpockets and prostitution. The real growth of Coney Island as a resort came about in the 1870s when five new railroads were constructed to connect the island with the rest of Brooklyn. These were built by businessmen and entrepreneurs who developed large hotels and wanted to provide easy access from Brooklyn and Manhattan to attract a higher-end clientele than those who frequented the western side. Austin Corbin built the luxurious Manhattan Beach Hotel in 1877 on the far eastern end, served by the New York and Manhattan Beach Railway with direct connections to lower Manhattan. Just to the west of this was the huge Brighton Beach Hotel opened in 1878. Its clientele were generally from Brooklyn’s middle-class business community and their families traveled to Coney Island via the Brooklyn, Flatbush, and Coney Island Railroad from Prospect Park.

Between Brighton Beach and the less savory environs of the far western point lay West Brighton, an area that became the island’s entertainment section and was served by the Prospect Park & Coney Island Railroad, commonly known as the Culver Line. Carrying numerous day- trippers away from their teeming tenements, this train terminated at a large depot near 17th Street across from Culver Plaza, a spacious open area filled with colorful flowers. West Brighton became the site of numerous bathing pavilions, restaurants, saloons, variety shows, small stores, games and unusual attractions such as the “Elephant Colossus” (built 1879, destroyed by fire in 1896) and the Iron Tower (imported from the Philadelphia Centennial of 1876). West Brighton was “Coney’s true entertainment district, attracting the lion’s share of the island’s visitors.”

During the 1890s West Brighton was the site of many innovations that increased the fame and popularity of Coney Island, including mechanical amusements such as carousels and roller coasters, hot dogs, and mixed gender public bathing. The Ferris Wheel, modeled after the original designed for the World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893, was brought to Coney Island in 1894. In 1895, Paul Boyton opened Sea Lion Park, the first outdoor amusement park in the world, which included live sea lions and a number of new mechanical rides. A series of disastrous fires in the 1890s destroyed many of the area’s flimsy wooden structures and opened large sections for redevelopment. With the goal of creating a “new” Coney Island that would attract more families and limit alcohol consumption, George C. Tilyou opened Steeplechase Park in 1897, including in his park a mechanical race track and a small version of the original Ferris Wheel. It was so successful that similar parks, such as Luna Park (1903) and Dreamland (1904) soon followed, offering more rides, entertainments, and a fantasy world of exotic architecture, bright lights, and unusual sights. The Bowery (named after the street of the same name in Manhattan) continued to serve as the island’s midway, with numerous small stands for rides, shooting galleries, arcades, and saloons, as well as palmists, dance halls, and photo galleries. By 1900, Sunday crowds reached more than 500,000 and lines for the various amusements often lasted well into the night.

More than any other area on the island, West Brighton…appealed to a working- class crowd, bringing together established groups and recent immigrants who in everyday life were often segregated into separate neighborhoods and work

places.

During the early years of the 20th century, Luna Park and Dreamland were destroyed by fire. The area’s racetracks were closed and the grand hotels to the east ceased to attract their previous crowds. In another effort to renew the neighborhood, the Coney Island Board of Trade was

formed by 1916, with membership consisting of successful local businessmen who had a sense of responsibility to improve the district for the sake of their own and other businesses. The summer season of 1916 opened with a pledge from this group to create an area that was “sanitary, safe, and sane.” Their goal was to impose “fair dealing,” with “no faking” to make sure that visitors had a good time and would want to come back again. They worked to encourage excursions to bring more people to Coney Island. Their publicity brochure stated that “Coney is better, bigger, cleaner and more wholesome than world’s fairs.”

These efforts had several practical effects. Sanitation was improved by providing more garbage cans with more frequent pick-up. There was greater cooperation with local police, and Surf Avenue was rebuilt with a smooth asphalt surface. The city subway system was extended to the area in 1920, allowing New Yorkers from all parts of New York to reach the beach for only five cents. After this, approximately one million visitors came to Coney Island each summer day. It soon became obvious that something had to be done to alleviate the resulting congestion and to allow for better fire-fighting access to battle the huge conflagrations that periodically decimated the area. A broad pedestrian boardwalk was constructed along the beach, with the first section opening in 1923, stretching four miles from Brighton Beach to Sea Gate. Additionally some of the area’s streets were widened destroying many smaller buildings in the process. These improvements changed the character of Coney Island and the resort attracted more families and was used during more times of the year.

Restaurants on Coney Island

Although clams were plentiful on the shoreline and many people in the 19th century came to Coney Island for picnics and clambakes, before long a number of restaurants also developed to feed the huge crowds that assembled there. Charles Feltman began selling hot dogs from his hot food wagon in 1871 as an easy-to-eat meal. As his business expanded, he leased a tiny plot of land along the shoreline and sold thousands of hot dogs to hungry visitors. In 1874 he bought a lot at West 10th Street and Surf Avenue, eventually expanding it to include several huge beer gardens serving beer, hot dogs and ice cream with German bands and Tyrolean singers entertaining his customers. Stauch’s Restaurant, located on the Bowery, was another local institution that appealed to an upper class clientele with its dining room and dance hall. Nathan’s started its hotdog stand in 1916 at the corner of Surf and Stillwell avenues. Although it took a while for this business to gain popularity, Nathan’s sold its one hundred millionth hot dog in 1955 and the store is still located at the same intersection.

The Child’s restaurant chain was expanding rapidly at this time and the idea of opening a branch at this busy and popular area made sense for the business.

Childs Restaurant

The restaurant as a unique place to take a meal began to gain popularity in this country after the Civil War. Although travelers had always been able to obtain food at inns and taverns, and later at hotel dining rooms, those living at home generally ate at home. Eating somewhere else was a new idea, related to a modern urban and industrial lifestyle. By the 1830s, members of the Del-Monico family established several Manhattan locales to supply New York’s elite with replicas of "Parisian" cuisine. At the same time, soup kitchens and one-cent coffee stands began to provide food for the destitute, while immigrants started cafes and beer gardens to recreate a taste of the old country for their fellow emigres. After the Civil War, other restaurants including saloons, coffee shops and oyster bars began to cater to the working class, with low-priced fare that was available during extended hours, not just at set mealtimes. Lunch-counters became common after the invention of the soda drink, when stores with these popular features began to add light food such as sandwiches to the sodas and desserts already served there.

The Childs Restaurant chain, begun in 1889, came out of this lunch-counter tradition. Samuel and William Childs, two brothers originally from New Jersey, learned the restaurant business by working for A.W. Dennett, owner of several restaurants in New York, Philadelphia and Boston. With $1,600 and some second-hand furniture, the brothers opened their first store on Cortlandt Street in Manhattan. It was so successful that they were able to open a second one several months later. They borrowed Dennett’s idea of placing a chef in the window, preparing flapjacks, as a way to advertise their business. They also started to furnish their restaurants with white-tiled walls and floors, white marble table-tops, and waitresses dressed in starched white uniforms, to convey a sense of cleanliness. The hard surfaces tended to discourage patrons from lingering on the premises, allowing for quicker turnover and more business. After ten years they had ten profitable restaurants and by 1925, the company (which was incorporated in 1902) operated107 restaurants in 33 cities in the United States and Canada.

Many of the early Childs Restaurants were set in narrow storefronts designed in an “austerely-elegant” style, with white tile, mirrors, bentwood furniture and exposed ceiling fans, to complement and also to symbolize the simplicity and purity of the food. Most of the stores from these early years were designed by John C. Westervelt who worked as the company architect for many years. In the 1920s however, new designs began to be used, each suited more specifically to the location of the individual store. One of these was the William Van Alen design for a Childs restaurant on Fifth Avenue which, in a bow to the more refined character of that section of town, did not display the usual signage and white decor, but had dark, mission style interiors, with “dramatic use of large sheets of curved glass for corner windows.” Another was the elegant Spanish Revival style building on the Boardwalk in Coney Island designed by Dennison & Hirons and built in 1923 (a designated New York City Landmark).

The Childs chain was responsible for several restaurant innovations, including a self-serve cafeteria. In 1898, at 130 Broadway, they piled a lunch counter high with sandwiches and pastry and trays on which to place them. Cafeteria service proved to be very popular and was emulated at numerous other restaurants around the country. In 1927, due to health concerns by William Childs, the Childs restaurants served only vegetarian food and were known as the Childs Unique Dairy Lunch. After a severe drop in business attributed to the meatless policy, it was reversed the following year.

In 1925, the Childs Company branched out from the restaurant business and became a primary investor in a new midtown hotel, the Savoy Plaza, on the east side of Fifth Avenue between 58th and 59th Streets. A large Childs Restaurant in the Spanish Renaissance style was located within this hotel. Samuel Childs served as president of the company before he died in 1925. William Childs served as a director of the new hotel corporation, as well as president and later chairman of the Childs Company until he was removed from governance of the company by irate stockholders in 1928.

The company and the restaurants continued to evolve over the years. After Prohibition was lifted in 1933, liquor and wine were served in some Childs outlets. In 1939, the company received the contract to provide food service at the New York World’s Fair, where it sold over 16 million hot dogs. Although the organization suffered financial problems at different periods, it continued to operate for many years. In 1950, the Childs Company bought Louis Sherry, the ice cream makers, and was, in turn, purchased by Lucky Stores shortly afterwards. At that time, the company owned restaurants in 14 American cities and three in Canada. In 1961, the chain was acquired by the Reise Brothers and in 1966 they opened the 90th Childs Restaurant on 52nd Street and Third Avenue in New York.

John C. Westervelt (1873-1934)

John Corley Westervelt was born in Ithaca, New York and educated at Cornell University, where he also served as a trustee for many years. He practiced architecture in New York City for 40 years, and was a member of the Architectural League of New York and the American Institute of Architects. Westervelt served as house architect for the Childs restaurant firm for more than 30 years, designing most of their restaurants in various cities. One of his more well- known designs was for the Childs Restaurant at the Savoy Plaza Hotel in Manhattan, which he rendered in the Spanish Renaissance style (demolished). Two other buildings designed by Westervelt can be seen in the Ladies Mile Historic District: 4 East 20th Street (1900-01), a neo- Grec style, cast-iron fronted department store and 184 Fifth Avenue (facade design, 1911), a commercial style store and loft building faced with white terra cotta.

Child’s Restaurant, Coney Island

Childs Restaurant became known as a place one could buy a reasonable meal for a fair price. Having already established its reputation in other parts of New York the company opened this small restaurant at the corner of Surf Avenue and 12th Street in 1917, in the heart of the West Brighton entertainment area. The block of Surf Avenue where it was constructed was near the Columbia Hotel and Kosters Music Hall and also held a series of small, one and two-story structures for games and other amusements on Surf Avenue and what was then Thompson’s Walk (later West 12th Street). Coney Island’s popularity was increasing, and since Childs Restaurants were already well-known to New Yorkers its location on this busy spot made good business sense.

This Childs restaurant was a two-story structure with two designed facades, each displaying broad arched openings along the street, a tiled roof and an overhanging, bracketed cornice. The Spanish Revival style facade was created of white-painted concrete with decorative triangular panels of terra-cotta mosaics inset in the arch spandrels. The concrete helped make it fireproof and its dramatic style helped it fit into the resort atmosphere of Coney Island. The large arched openings may have been inspired by several nearby buildings that also faced the street with similar windows, possibly as a way of encouraging anyone strolling by to enter the establishment. Although the Spanish (or the variant Mediterranean) Revival style was more often found on buildings in warmer climates, such as in Florida or the Caribbean, the designer of this structure was hoping to suggest this same kind of vacation-oriented environment for a building in the heart of New York’s most popular resort area.

The narrow side street where the restaurant was located was a private street called Thompson’s Walk. As part of the area’s general improvement plan in 1923, the city widened it from 30 to 60 feet, paved it and opened it as West 12th Street. This necessitated the movement of the Child’s building to the west, achieved by cutting the front piers so that it could be raised onto rails and slid farther from the widened street. The facade was then restored to its original appearance.

This building served the Child’s restaurant chain for many years. When the Boardwalk was opened in 1923, the company opened a second, much larger restaurant at 21st Street (a designated New York City Landmark). Childs closed this store in the area’s busy amusement section by 1943. From 1944 the building housed the Bluebird Casino and later other restaurants and clubs, as well as David Rosen’s Wonderland Circus Sideshow. Since 2007, it has been owned by Coney Island USA and serves as the home of the Coney Island Museum which documents the history of this famous section of New York.

Description

The Childs Restaurant Building is located on the corner of Surf Avenue and 12th Street and has two designed facades that display the same motifs. The Surf Avenue facade is three bays wide while that on 12th Street has six bays. Constructed of brick covered with painted concrete, the building is two stories tall and is capped by a shallow pent roof that overhangs the facade and is topped by red Spanish tiles. The roof is supported on paired metal brackets with flat concrete panels between them. There are colorful, non-historic fabric signs attached to the wall space between each window that are suggestive of the kinds of banners that used to advertise Coney Island attractions during its heyday.

The Surf Avenue facade has three large, round-arched openings with non-historic metal-and- glass infill. The entrance is located within the center arch. The arches have remnants of painted concrete moldings along the edges of their openings. Large metal housing for roll-down metal gates is located over the windows and below the transoms. Triangular multi-colored mosaic panels are set in the arch spandrels. A concrete molding marks the top of the first story and a series of small, non-historic light fixtures extend horizontally from above it.

The second story has three rectangular window openings marked by painted concrete window sills. The original metal window frame is in place however, the glass has been replaced by two large panes. There are two rectangular vent openings in the cornice between the paired brackets that show up in the early tax photo.

The 12th Street facade is longer, with six bays displayed along its length. This side boasts similar motifs to those on Surf Avenue. There are six large, round-arched openings on the ground story. Only the first one nearest the corner has the full transom arch revealed since the others are covered by plywood and fabric signs. There is a service entrance with non-historic door located in the southernmost bay. Historic, concrete-covered piers flank the doorway and it is topped by a series of wires attached to the building. Non-historic roll-down metal gates are located above each archway. The concrete cornice carries around the building above the ground story. The second story has six rectangular windows with new glass and historic sash, except for the two southernmost windows in which the entire sash has been replaced.

A plastered and painted extension with mechanical housing extends above the roof at the southernmost corner of the building.

– From the 2011 NYCLPC Landmark Designation Report

Posted by Emilio Guerra on 2012-03-29 11:58:11

Tagged: , 03182012 , 18 de marzo de 2012 , 18032012 , 18-III-2012 , Borough of Brooklyn , Brooklyn , Coney Island , Coney Island, Brooklyn , Copyright: 2012, Emilio Guerra , Kings County , Landmark , March 18, 2012 , March 18, 2012 walk , New York , New York City , New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission , New York City, NY , New York, NY , Nueva York , Nueva York, EE.UU. , Nueva York, Estados Unidos , Nueva York, Nueva York , NY , NY, NY , NYC , NYCLPC , Paseo del 18 de marzo de 2012 , United States , United States of America , USA , Childs Restaurant Building , LP-2410 , West Brighton

awesome Small House Design Fountains Abbey North Yorkshire England UK

Fountains Abbey North Yorkshire England UK

Fountains Abbey is one of the largest and best preserved ruined Cistercian monasteries in England. It is located approximately 3 miles (5 kilometres) south-west of Ripon in North Yorkshire, near to the village of Aldfield. Founded in 1132, the abbey operated for 407 years becoming one of the wealthiest monasteries in England until its dissolution in 1539 under the order of Henry VIII.

The abbey is a Grade I listed building owned by the National Trust and part of the designated Studley Royal Park including the Ruins of Fountains Abbey UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Foundation

After a dispute and riot in 1132 at the Benedictine house of St Mary’s Abbey, in York, 13 monks were expelled (among them Saint Robert of Newminster) and, after unsuccessful attempts to form a new monastery were taken under the protection of Thurstan, Archbishop of York. He provided them with land in the valley of the River Skell, a tributary of the Ure. The enclosed valley had all the natural features needed for the creation of a monastery, providing shelter from the weather, stone and timber for building, and a supply of running water. After enduring a harsh winter in 1133, the monks applied to join the Cistercian order which since the end of the previous century was a fast-growing reform movement that by the beginning of the 13th century was to have over 500 houses. So it was that in 1135, Fountains became the second Cistercian house in northern England, after Rievaulx. The Fountains monks became subject to Clairvaux Abbey, in Burgundy which was under the rule of St Bernard. Under the guidance of Geoffrey of Ainai, a monk sent from Clairvaux, the group learned how to celebrate the seven Canonical Hours according to Cistercian usage and were shown how to construct wooden buildings in accordance with Cistercian practice.

Consolidation

After Henry Murdac was elected abbot in 1143, the small stone church and timber claustral buildings were replaced. Within three years, an aisled nave had been added to the stone church, and the first permanent claustral buildings built in stone and roofed in tile had been completed.
In 1146 an angry mob, annoyed at Murdac for his role in opposing the election of William FitzHerbert as archbishop of York, attacked the abbey and burnt down all but the church and some surrounding buildings.The community recovered swiftly from the attack and founded four daughter houses. Henry Murdac resigned as abbot in 1147 upon becoming the Archbishop of York and was replaced first by Maurice, Abbot of Rievaulx then, on the resignation of Maurice, by Thorald. Thorald was forced by Henry Murdac to resign after two years in office. The next abbot, Richard, held the post until his death in 1170 and restored the abbey’s stability and prosperity. In 20 years as abbot, he supervised a huge building programme which involved completing repairs to the damaged church and building more accommodation for the increasing number of recruits. Only the chapter house was completed before he died and the work was ably continued by his successor, Robert of Pipewell, under whose rule the abbey gained a reputation for caring for the needy.

The next abbot was William, who presided over the abbey from 1180 to 1190 and he was succeeded by Ralph Haget, who had entered Fountains at the age of 30 as a novice, after pursuing a military career. During the European famine of 1194 Haget ordered the construction of shelters in the vicinity of the abbey and provided daily food rations to the poor enhancing the abbey’s reputation for caring for the poor and attracting more grants from wealthy benefactors.
In the first half of the 13th century Fountains increased in reputation and prosperity under the next three abbots, John of York (1203–1211), John of Hessle (1211–1220) and John of Kent (1220–1247). They were burdened with an inordinate amount of administrative duties and increasing demands for money in taxation and levies but managed to complete another massive expansion of the abbey’s buildings. This included enlarging the church and building an infirmary.

Difficulties

In the second half of the 13th century the abbey was in more straitened circumstances. It was presided over by eleven abbots, and became financially unstable largely due to forward selling its wool crop, and the abbey was criticised for its dire material and physical state when it was visited by Archbishop John le Romeyn in 1294. The run of disasters that befell the community continued into the early 14th century when northern England was invaded by the Scots and there were further demands for taxes. The culmination of these misfortunes was the Black Death of 1348–1349. The loss of manpower and income due to the ravages of the plague was almost ruinous.
A further complication arose as a result of the Papal Schism of 1378–1409. Fountains Abbey along with other English Cistercian houses was told to break off any contact with the mother house of Citeaux, which supported a rival pope. This resulted in the abbots forming their own chapter to rule the order in England and consequently they became increasingly involved in internecine politics. In 1410, following the death of Abbot Burley of Fountains, the community was riven by several years of turmoil over the election of his successor. Contending candidates John Ripon, Abbot of Meaux, and Roger Frank, a monk of Fountains were locked in conflict until 1415 when Ripon was finally appointed, ruling until his death in 1434. Under abbots John Greenwell (1442–1471), Thomas Swinton (1471–8), John Darnton (1478–95), who undertook some much needed restoration of the fabric of the abbey, including notable work on the church, and Marmaduke Huby (1495–1526) Fountains regained stability and prosperity.
At Abbot Huby’s death he was succeeded by William Thirsk who was accused by the royal commissioners of immorality and inadequacy and was dismissed as abbot. He was replaced by Marmaduke Bradley, a monk of the abbey who had reported Thirsk’s supposed offences, testified against him and offered the authorities six hundred marks for the post of abbot. In 1539 it was Bradley who surrendered the abbey when its seizure was ordered under Henry VIII at the Dissolution of the Monasteries.

The abbey precinct covered 70 acres (28 ha) surrounded by an 11-foot (3.4 m) wall built in the 13th century, some parts of which are visible to the south and west of the abbey. The area consists of three concentric zones cut by the River Skell flowing from west to east across the site. The church and claustral buildings stand at the centre of the precinct north of the Skell, the inner court containing the domestic buildings stretches down to the river and the outer court housing the industrial and agricultural buildings lies on the river’s south bank. The early abbey buildings were added to and altered over time, causing deviations from the strict Cistercian type. Outside the walls were the abbey’s granges.[citation needed]
The original abbey church was built of wood and "was probably" two stories high; it was, however, quickly replaced in stone. The church was damaged in the attack on the abbey in 1146 and was rebuilt, in a larger scale, on the same site. Building work was completed c.1170.[11] This structure, completed around 1170, was 300 ft (91 m) long and had 11 bays in the side aisles. A lantern tower was added at the crossing of the church in the late 12th century. The presbytery at the eastern end of the church was much altered in the 13th century. The church’s greatly lengthened choir, commenced by Abbot John of York, 1203–11, and carried on by his successor terminates, like that of Durham Cathedral, in an eastern transept, the work of Abbot John of Kent, 1220–47. The 160-foot-tall (49 m) tower, which was added not long before the dissolution, by Abbot Huby, 1494–1526, is in an unusual position at the northern end of the north transept and bears Huby’s motto ‘Soli Deo Honor et Gloria’. The sacristry adjoined the south transept.
The cloister, which had arcading of black marble from Nidderdale and white sandstone, is in the centre of the precinct and to the south of the church. The three-aisled chapter-house and parlour open from the eastern walk of the cloister and the refectory, with the kitchen and buttery attached, are at right angles to its southern walk. Parallel with the western walk is an immense vaulted substructure serving as cellars and store-rooms, which supported the dormitory of the conversi (lay brothers) above. This building extended across the river and at its south-west corner were the latrines, built above the swiftly flowing stream. The monks’ dormitory was in its usual position above the chapter-house, to the south of the transept. Peculiarities of this arrangement include the position of the kitchen, between the refectory and calefactory, and of the infirmary above the river to the west, adjoining the guest-houses.

The abbot’s house, one of the largest in all of England,is located to the east of the latrine block, where portions of it are suspended on arches over the River Skell.It was built in the mid-twelfth century as a modest single-storey structure, then, from the fourteenth century, underwent extensive expansion and remodelling to end up in the 16th century as a grand dwelling with fine bay windows and grand fireplaces. The great hall was an expansive room 52 by 21 metres (171 by 69 ft).
Among other apartments, for the designation of which see the ground-plan, was a domestic oratory or chapel,

1/2-by-23-foot (14 by 7 m), and a kitchen, 50-by-38-foot (15 by 12 m)

Medieval monasteries were sustained by landed estates that were given to them as endowments and from which they derived an income from rents. They were the gifts of the founder and subsequent patrons, but some were purchased from cash revenues. At the outset, the Cistercian order rejected gifts of mills and rents, churches with tithes and feudal manors as they did not accord with their belief in monastic purity, because they involved contact with laymen. When Archbishop Thurstan founded the abbey he gave the community 260 acres (110 ha) of land at Sutton north of the abbey and 200 acres (81 ha) at Herleshowe to provide support while the abbey became established. In the early years the abbey struggled to maintain itself because further gifts were not forthcoming and Thurstan could not help further because the lands he administered were not his own, but part of the diocesan estate. After a few years of impoverished struggle to establish the abbey, the monks were joined by Hugh, a former dean of York Minster, a rich man who brought a considerable fortune as well as furniture and books to start the library.
By 1135 the monks had acquired only another 260 acres (110 ha) at Cayton, given by Eustace fitzJohn of Knaresborough "for the building of the abbey". Shortly after the fire of 1146, the monks had established granges at Sutton, Cayton, Cowton Moor, Warsill, Dacre and Aldburgh all within 6 mi (10 km) of Fountains. In the 1140s the water mill was built on the abbey site making it possible for the grain from the granges to be brought to the abbey for milling.Tannery waste from this time has been excavated on the site.
Further estates were assembled in two phases, between 1140 and 1160 then 1174 and 1175, from piecemeal acquisitions of land. Some of the lands were grants from benefactors but others were purchased from gifts of money to the abbey. Roger de Mowbray granted vast areas of Nidderdale and William de Percy and his tenants granted substantial estates in Craven which included Malham Moor and the fishery in Malham Tarn. After 1203 the abbots consolidated the abbey’s lands by renting out more distant areas that the monks could not easily farm themselves, and exchanging and purchasing lands that complemented their existing estates. Fountains’ holdings both in Yorkshire and beyond had reached their maximum extent by 1265, when they were an efficient and very profitable estate. Their estates were linked in a network of individual granges which provided staging posts to the most distant ones. They had urban properties in York, Yarm, Grimsby, Scarborough and Boston from which to conduct export and market trading and their other commercial interests included mining, quarrying, iron-smelting, fishing and milling.
The Battle of Bannockburn in 1314 was a factor that led to a downturn in the prosperity of the abbey in the early fourteenth century. Areas of the north of England as far south as York were looted by the Scots. Then the number of lay-brothers being recruited to the order reduced considerably. The abbey chose to take advantage of the relaxation of the edict on leasing property that had been enacted by the General Chapter of the order in 1208 and leased some of their properties. Others were staffed by hired labour and remained in hand under the supervision of bailiffs. In 1535 Fountains had an interest in 138 vills and the total taxable income of the Fountains estate was £1,115, making it the richest Cistercian monastery in England.
After the Dissolution

The Gresham family crest
The Abbey buildings and over 500 acres (200 ha) of land were sold by the Crown, on 1 October 1540, to Sir Richard Gresham, at the time a Member of Parliament and former Lord Mayor of London, the father of Sir Thomas Gresham. It was Richard Gresham who had supplied Cardinal Wolsey with the tapestries for his new house of Hampton Court and who paid for the Cardinal’s funeral.
Gresham sold some of the fabric of the site, stone, timber, lead, as building materials to help to defray the cost of purchase. The site was acquired in 1597 by Sir Stephen Proctor, who used stone from the monastic complex to build Fountains Hall. Between 1627 and 1767 the estate was owned by the Messenger family who sold it to William Aislaby who was responsible for combining it with the Studley Royal Estate.

Burials

Roger de Mowbray, 1st Baron Mowbray
John de Mowbray, 2nd Baron Mowbray
Abbot Marmaduke Huby (d. 1526)
Rose (daughter of Richard de Clare, 6th Earl of Gloucester), wife of Roger de Mowbray, 1st Baron Mowbray
Henry de Percy, 1st Baron Percy
William II de Percy, 3rd feudal baron of Topcliffe
Becoming a World Heritage Site
The archaeological excavation of the site was begun under the supervision of John Richard Walbran, a Ripon antiquary who, in 1846, had published a paper On the Necessity of clearing out the Conventual Church of Fountains.In 1966 the Abbey was placed in the guardianship of the Department of the Environment and the estate was purchased by the West Riding County Council who transferred ownership to the North Yorkshire County Council in 1974. The National Trust bought the 674-acre (273 ha) Fountains Abbey and Studley Royal estate from North Yorkshire County Council in 1983. In 1986 the parkland in which the abbey is situated and the abbey was designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. It was recognised for fulfilling the criteria of being a masterpiece of human creative genius, and an outstanding example of a type of building or architectural or technological ensemble or landscape which illustrates significant stages in human history. Fountains Abbey is owned by the National Trust and maintained by English Heritage. The trust owns Studley Royal Park, Fountains Hall, to which there is partial public access, and St Mary’s Church, designed by William Burges and built around 1873, all of which are significant features of the World Heritage Site.
The Porter’s Lodge, which was once the gatehouse to the abbey, houses a modern exhibition area with displays about the history of Fountains Abbey and how the monks lived.
In January 2010, Fountains Abbey and Studley Royal became two of the first National Trust properties to be included in Google Street View, using the Google Trike.

Film location

Fountains Abbey was used as a film location by Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark for their single "Maid of Orleans (The Waltz Joan of Arc)" during the cold winter of December 1981. In 1980, Hollywood also came to the site to film the final scenes to the film Omen III: The Final Conflict.Other productions filmed on location at the abbey are the films Life at the Top, The Secret Garden, The History Boys, TV series Flambards, A History of Britain, Terry Jones’ Medieval Lives, Cathedral, Antiques Roadshow and the game show Treasure Hunt. The BBC Television series ‘Gunpowder’ (2017) used Fountains Abbey as a location.

Posted by CT Photography (Leeds , UK) on 2018-06-16 22:05:23

Tagged: , Fountains Abbey , Ripon , North Yorkshire , england , uk , english heritage , national trust , Cistercian monasteries , village of Aldfield , ruin , ruins , Grade I listed buildings , history , historical

amazing Small House Design Image from page 162 of “International studio” (1897)

Image from page 162 of

Identifier: internationalstu70newy
Title: International studio
Year: 1897 (1890s)
Authors:
Subjects: Art Decoration and ornament
Publisher: New York
Contributing Library: Robarts – University of Toronto
Digitizing Sponsor: University of Toronto

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26 living-room of mr. ejnarschaffers summer-house,holte. c. br.sstrup,architect THE REVIVAL OF THE WOODEN HOUSE

Text Appearing After Image:
HUT ON THE EDGE OF A LAKEDESIGNED, BUILT AND DECORATEDBY THE OWNER, KAJ BOJESEN kitchen. On the first floor, which onlyextends over part of the house, and towhich leads a picturesque inner staircaseat one end of the hall, are two more bed-rooms. The interior is in many placesornamented by means of carving, paintedin transparent oil-colours, the furniture,specially designed and also made by M.Richardt has been treated in the samemanner. a a a a a M. Mikkelsens house at Nsrum hasalso been very happily placed, in charmingenvirons. It has all the dignified simpli-city and other characteristics of the oldNorse timbered houses, and is, to boot, bothroomy and very cosy. a a a Dr. E. Schaffers house at Holte, Den-mark, hke most of the timbered housesonly used as a summer residence, isbuilt by M. C. Brzstrup, the architect.It enjoys an excellent position in avery pretty neighbourhood, well wooded,amongst hills and lakes. It was originallyonly a small house, but has been mate-rially enlarged, t

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Posted by Internet Archive Book Images on 2014-07-30 04:49:07

Tagged: , bookid:internationalstu70newy , bookyear:1897 , bookdecade:1890 , bookcentury:1800 , booksubject:Art , booksubject:Decoration_and_ornament , bookpublisher:New_York , bookcontributor:Robarts___University_of_Toronto , booksponsor:University_of_Toronto , bookleafnumber:162 , bookcollection:robarts , bookcollection:toronto

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